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Principles of Neural Science-6판
Principles of Neural Scie
       판매가 : 240,000216,000
       적립금 : 4,320
       저   자 : kandel
       역   자 :
       출판사 : McGraw-Hill
       ISBN(10) : 9781259642234
    ISBN(13) : 9781259642234
       발행일 : 2021-04-02  /   6판   /   1696 페이지
       상품코드 : 27918
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Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents in Brief
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Contributors
Part I Overall Perspective

01 The Brain and Behavior

Two Opposing Views Have Been Advanced on the Relationship Between Brain and Behavior
The Brain Has Distinct Functional Regions
The First Strong Evidence for Localization of Cognitive Abilities Came From Studies of Language Disorders
Mental Processes Are the Product of Interactions Between Elementary Processing Units in the Brain
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

02 Genes and Behavior

An Understanding of Molecular Genetics and Heritability Is Essential to the Study of Human Behavior
The Understanding of the Structure and Function of the Genome Is Evolving
Genes Are Arranged on Chromosomes
The Relationship Between Genotype and Phenotype Is Often Complex
Genes Are Conserved Through Evolution
Genetic Regulation of Behavior Can Be Studied in Animal Models
A Transcriptional Oscillator Regulates Circadian Rhythm in Flies, Mice, and Humans
Natural Variation in a Protein Kinase Regulates Activity in Flies and Honeybees
Neuropeptide Receptors Regulate the Social Behaviors of Several Species
Studies of Human Genetic Syndromes Have Provided Initial Insights Into the Underpinnings of Social Behavior
Brain Disorders in Humans Result From Interactions Between Genes and the Environment
Rare Neurodevelopmental Syndromes Provide Insights Into the Biology of Social Behavior, Perception, and Cognition
Psychiatric Disorders Involve Multigenic Traits
Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorder Genetics Highlight the Role of Rare and De Novo Mutations in Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
Identification of Genes for Schizophrenia Highlights the Interplay of Rare and Common Risk Variants
Perspectives on the Genetic Bases of Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Highlights
Glossary
Selected Reading
References

03 Nerve Cells, Neural Circuitry, and Behavior

The Nervous System Has Two Classes of Cells
Nerve Cells Are the Signaling Units of the Nervous System
Glial Cells Support Nerve Cells
Each Nerve Cell Is Part of a Circuit That Mediates Specific Behaviors
Signaling Is Organized in the Same Way in All Nerve Cells
The Input Component Produces Graded Local Signals
The Trigger Zone Makes the Decision to Generate an Action Potential
The Conductive Component Propagates an All-or-None Action Potential
The Output Component Releases Neurotransmitter
The Transformation of the Neural Signal From Sensory to Motor Is Illustrated by the Stretch-Reflex Pathway
Nerve Cells Differ Most at the Molecular Level
The Reflex Circuit Is a Starting Point for Understanding the Neural Architecture of Behavior
Neural Circuits Can Be Modified by Experience
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

04 The Neuroanatomical Bases by Which Neural Circuits Mediate Behavior

Local Circuits Carry Out Specific Neural Computations That Are Coordinated to Mediate Complex Behaviors
Sensory Information Circuits Are Illustrated in the Somatosensory System
Somatosensory Information From the Trunk and Limbs Is Conveyed to the Spinal Cord
The Primary Sensory Neurons of the Trunk and Limbs Are Clustered in the Dorsal Root Ganglia
The Terminals of Central Axons of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons in the Spinal Cord Produce a Map of the Body Surface
Each Somatic Submodality Is Processed in a Distinct Subsystem From the Periphery to the Brain
The Thalamus Is an Essential Link Between Sensory Receptors and the Cerebral Cortex
Sensory Information Processing Culminates in the Cerebral Cortex
Voluntary Movement Is Mediated by Direct Connections Between the Cortex and Spinal Cord
Modulatory Systems in the Brain Influence Motivation, Emotion, and Memory
The Peripheral Nervous System Is Anatomically Distinct From the Central Nervous System
Memory Is a Complex Behavior Mediated by Structures Distinct From Those That Carry Out Sensation or Movement
The Hippocampal System Is Interconnected With the Highest-Level Polysensory Cortical Regions
The Hippocampal Formation Comprises Several Different but Highly Integrated Circuits
The Hippocampal Formation Is Made Up Mainly of Unidirectional Connections
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

05 The Computational Bases of Neural Circuits That Mediate Behavior

Neural Firing Patterns Provide a Code for Information
Sensory Information Is Encoded by Neural Activity
Information Can Be Decoded From Neural Activity
Hippocampal Spatial Cognitive Maps Can Be Decoded to Infer Location
Neural Circuit Motifs Provide a Basic Logic for Information Processing
Visual Processing and Object Recognition Depend on a Hierarchy of Feed-Forward Representations
Diverse Neuronal Representations in the Cerebellum Provide a Basis for Learning
Recurrent Circuitry Underlies Sustained Activity and Integration
Learning and Memory Depend on Synaptic Plasticity
Dominant Patterns of Synaptic Input Can be Identified by Hebbian Plasticity
Synaptic Plasticity in the Cerebellum Plays a Key Role in Motor Learning
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

06 Imaging and Behavior

Functional MRI Experiments Measure Neurovascular Activity
fMRI Depends on the Physics of Magnetic Resonance
fMRI Depends on the Biology of Neurovascular Coupling
Functional MRI Data Can Be Analyzed in Several Ways
fMRI Data First Need to Be Prepared for Analysis by Following Preprocessing Steps
fMRI Can Be Used to Localize Cognitive Functions to Specific Brain Regions
fMRI Can Be Used to Decode What Information Is Represented in the Brain
fMRI Can Be Used to Measure Correlated Activity Across Brain Networks
Functional MRI Studies Have Led to Fundamental Insights
fMRI Studies in Humans Have Inspired Neurophysiological Studies in Animals
fMRI Studies Have Challenged Theories From Cognitive Psychology and Systems Neuroscience
fMRI Studies Have Tested Predictions From Animal Studies and Computational Models
Functional MRI Studies Require Careful Interpretation
Future Progress Depends on Technological and Conceptual Advances
Highlights
Suggested Reading
References
Part II Cell and Molecular Biology of Cells of the Nervous System

07 The Cells of the Nervous System

Neurons and Glia Share Many Structural and Molecular Characteristics
The Cytoskeleton Determines Cell Shape
Protein Particles and Organelles Are Actively Transported Along the Axon and Dendrites
Fast Axonal Transport Carries Membranous Organelles
Slow Axonal Transport Carries Cytosolic Proteins and Elements of the Cytoskeleton
Proteins Are Made in Neurons as in Other Secretory Cells
Secretory and Membrane Proteins Are Synthesized and Modified in the Endoplasmic Reticulum
Secretory Proteins Are Modified in the Golgi Complex
Surface Membrane and Extracellular Substances Are Recycled in the Cell
Glial Cells Play Diverse Roles in Neural Function
Glia Form the Insulating Sheaths for Axons
Astrocytes Support Synaptic Signaling
Microglia Have Diverse Functions in Health and Disease
Choroid Plexus and Ependymal Cells Produce Cerebrospinal Fluid
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

08 Ion Channels

Ion Channels Are Proteins That Span the Cell Membrane
Ion Channels in All Cells Share Several Functional Characteristics
Currents Through Single Ion Channels Can Be Recorded
The Flux of Ions Through a Channel Differs From Diffusion in Free Solution
The Opening and Closing of a Channel Involve Conformational Changes
The Structure of Ion Channels Is Inferred From Biophysical, Biochemical, and Molecular Biological Studies
Ion Channels Can Be Grouped Into Gene Families
X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis of Potassium Channel Structure Provides Insight Into Mechanisms of Channel Permeability and
Selectivity
X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Structures Provides Insight into Mechanisms of Channel
Gating
The Structural Basis of the Selective Permeability of Chloride Channels Reveals a Close Relation Between Channels and
Transporters
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

09 Membrane Potential and the Passive Electrical Properties of the Neuron

The Resting Membrane Potential Results From the Separation of Charge Across the Cell Membrane
The Resting Membrane Potential Is Determined by Nongated and Gated Ion Channels
Open Channels in Glial Cells Are Permeable to Potassium Only
Open Channels in Resting Nerve Cells Are Permeable to Three Ion Species
The Electrochemical Gradients of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium Are Established by Active Transport of the Ions
Chloride Ions Are Also Actively Transported
The Balance of Ion Fluxes in the Resting Membrane Is Abolished During the Action Potential
The Contributions of Different Ions to the Resting Membrane Potential Can Be Quantified by the Goldman Equation
The Functional Properties of the Neuron Can Be Represented as an Electrical Equivalent Circuit
The Passive Electrical Properties of the Neuron Affect Electrical Signaling
Membrane Capacitance Slows the Time Course of Electrical Signals
Membrane and Cytoplasmic Resistance Affect the Efficiency of Signal Conduction
Large Axons Are More Easily Excited Than Small Axons
Passive Membrane Properties and Axon Diameter Affect the Velocity of Action Potential Propagation
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

10 Propagated Signaling: The Action Potential

The Action Potential Is Generated by the Flow of Ions Through Voltage-Gated Channels
Sodium and Potassium Currents Through Voltage-Gated Channels Are Recorded With the Voltage Clamp
Voltage-Gated Sodium and Potassium Conductances Are Calculated From Their Currents
The Action Potential Can Be Reconstructed From the Properties of Sodium and Potassium Channels
The Mechanisms of Voltage Gating Have Been Inferred From Electrophysiological Measurements
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Select for Sodium on the Basis of Size, Charge, and Energy of Hydration of the Ion
Individual Neurons Have a Rich Variety of Voltage-Gated Channels That Expand Their Signaling Capabilities
The Diversity of Voltage-Gated Channel Types Is Generated by Several Genetic Mechanisms
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels
Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels
Voltage-Gated Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels
Gating of Ion Channels Can Be Controlled by Cytoplasmic Calcium
Excitability Properties Vary Between Types of Neurons
Excitability Properties Vary Between Regions of the Neuron
Neuronal Excitability Is Plastic
Highlights
Selected Reading
References
Part III Synaptic Transmission

11 Overview of Synaptic Transmission

Synapses Are Predominantly Electrical or Chemical
Electrical Synapses Provide Rapid Signal Transmission
Cells at an Electrical Synapse Are Connected by Gap-Junction Channels
Electrical Transmission Allows Rapid and Synchronous Firing of Interconnected Cells
Gap Junctions Have a Role in Glial Function and Disease
Chemical Synapses Can Amplify Signals
The Action of a Neurotransmitter Depends on the Properties of the Postsynaptic Receptor
Activation of Postsynaptic Receptors Gates Ion Channels Either Directly or Indirectly
Electrical and Chemical Synapses Can Coexist and Interact
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

12 Directly Gated Transmission: The Nerve-Muscle Synapse

The Neuromuscular Junction Has Specialized Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures
The Postsynaptic Potential Results From a Local Change in Membrane Permeability
The Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine Is Released in Discrete Packets
Individual Acetylcholine Receptor-Channels Conduct All-or-None Currents
The Ion Channel at the End-Plate Is Permeable to Both Sodium and Potassium Ions
Four Factors Determine the End-Plate Current
The Acetylcholine Receptor-Channels Have Distinct Properties That Distinguish Them From the Voltage-Gated Channels That
Generate the Muscle Action Potential
Transmitter Binding Produces a Series of State Changes in the Acetylcholine Receptor-Channel
The Low-Resolution Structure of the Acetylcholine Receptor Is Revealed by Molecular and Biophysical Studies
The High-Resolution Structure of the Acetylcholine Receptor-Channel Is Revealed by X-Ray Crystal Studies
Highlights
Postscript: The End-Plate Current Can Be Calculated From an Equivalent Circuit
Selected Reading
References

13 Synaptic Integration in the Central Nervous System

Central Neurons Receive Excitatory and Inhibitory Inputs
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses Have Distinctive Ultrastructures and Target Different Neuronal Regions
Excitatory Synaptic Transmission Is Mediated by Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor-Channels Permeable to Cations
The Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Are Encoded by a Large Gene Family
Glutamate Receptors Are Constructed From a Set of Structural Modules
NMDA and AMPA Receptors Are Organized by a Network of Proteins at the Postsynaptic Density
NMDA Receptors Have Unique Biophysical and Pharmacological Properties
The Properties of the NMDA Receptor Underlie Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity
NMDA Receptors Contribute to Neuropsychiatric Disease
Fast Inhibitory Synaptic Actions Are Mediated by Ionotropic GABA and Glycine Receptor-Channels Permeable to Chloride
Ionotropic Glutamate, GABA, and Glycine Receptors Are Transmembrane Proteins Encoded by Two Distinct Gene Families
Chloride Currents Through GABAA and Glycine Receptor-Channels Normally Inhibit the Postsynaptic Cell
Some Synaptic Actions in the Central Nervous System Depend on Other Types of Ionotropic Receptors
Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Actions Are Integrated by Neurons Into a Single Output
Synaptic Inputs Are Integrated at the Axon Initial Segment
Subclasses of GABAergic Neurons Target Distinct Regions of Their Postsynaptic Target Neurons to Produce Inhibitory Actions
With Different Functions
Dendrites Are Electrically Excitable Structures That Can Amplify Synaptic Input
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

14 Modulation of Synaptic Transmission and Neuronal Excitability: Second Messengers

The Cyclic AMP Pathway Is the Best Understood Second-Messenger Signaling Cascade Initiated by G Protein–Coupled Receptors
The Second-Messenger Pathways Initiated by G Protein–Coupled Receptors Share a Common Molecular Logic
A Family of G Proteins Activates Distinct Second-Messenger Pathways
Hydrolysis of Phospholipids by Phospholipase C Produces Two Important Second Messengers, IP3 and Diacylglycerol
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Compose the Second Major Family of Metabotropic Receptors
Several Classes of Metabolites Can Serve as Transcellular Messengers
Hydrolysis of Phospholipids by Phospholipase A2 Liberates Arachidonic Acid to Produce Other Second Messengers
Endocannabinoids Are Transcellular Messengers That Inhibit Presynaptic Transmitter Release
The Gaseous Second Messenger Nitric Oxide Is a Transcellular Signal That Stimulates Cyclic GMP Synthesis
The Physiological Actions of Metabotropic Receptors Differ From Those of Ionotropic Receptors
Second-Messenger Cascades Can Increase or Decrease the Opening of Many Types of Ion Channels
G Proteins Can Modulate Ion Channels Directly
Cyclic AMP–Dependent Protein Phosphorylation Can Close Potassium Channels
Second Messengers Can Endow Synaptic Transmission with Long-Lasting Consequences
Modulators Can Influence Circuit Function by Altering Intrinsic Excitability or Synaptic Strength
Multiple Neuromodulators Can Converge Onto the Same Neuron and Ion Channels
Why So Many Modulators?
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

15 Transmitter Release

Transmitter Release Is Regulated by Depolarization of the Presynaptic Terminal
Release Is Triggered by Calcium Influx
The Relation Between Presynaptic Calcium Concentration and Release
Several Classes of Calcium Channels Mediate Transmitter Release
Transmitter Is Released in Quantal Units
Transmitter Is Stored and Released by Synaptic Vesicles
Synaptic Vesicles Discharge Transmitter by Exocytosis and Are Recycled by Endocytosis
Capacitance Measurements Provide Insight Into the Kinetics of Exocytosis and Endocytosis
Exocytosis Involves the Formation of a Temporary Fusion Pore
The Synaptic Vesicle Cycle Involves Several Steps
Exocytosis of Synaptic Vesicles Relies on a Highly Conserved Protein Machinery
The Synapsins Are Important for Vesicle Restraint and Mobilization
SNARE Proteins Catalyze Fusion of Vesicles With the Plasma Membrane
Calcium Binding to Synaptotagmin Triggers Transmitter Release
The Fusion Machinery Is Embedded in a Conserved Protein Scaffold at the Active Zone
Modulation of Transmitter Release Underlies Synaptic Plasticity
Activity-Dependent Changes in Intracellular Free Calcium Can Produce Long-Lasting Changes in Release
Axo-axonic Synapses on Presynaptic Terminals Regulate Transmitter Release
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

16 Neurotransmitters

A Chemical Messenger Must Meet Four Criteria to Be Considered a Neurotransmitter
Only a Few Small-Molecule Substances Act as Transmitters
Acetylcholine
Biogenic Amine Transmitters
Amino Acid Transmitters
ATP and Adenosine
Small-Molecule Transmitters Are Actively Taken Up Into Vesicles
Many Neuroactive Peptides Serve as Transmitters
Peptides and Small-Molecule Transmitters Differ in Several Ways
Peptides and Small-Molecule Transmitters Can Be Co-released
Removal of Transmitter From the Synaptic Cleft Terminates Synaptic Transmission
Highlights
Selected Reading
References
Part IV Perception

17 Sensory Coding

Psychophysics Relates Sensations to the Physical Properties of Stimuli
Psychophysics Quantifies the Perception of Stimulus Properties
Stimuli Are Represented in the Nervous System by the Firing Patterns of Neurons
Sensory Receptors Respond to Specific Classes of Stimulus Energy
Multiple Subclasses of Sensory Receptors Are Found in Each Sense Organ
Receptor Population Codes Transmit Sensory Information to the Brain
Sequences of Action Potentials Signal the Temporal Dynamics of Stimuli
The Receptive Fields of Sensory Neurons Provide Spatial Information About Stimulus Location
Central Nervous System Circuits Refine Sensory Information
The Receptor Surface Is Represented Topographically in the Early Stages of Each Sensory System
Sensory Information Is Processed in Parallel Pathways in the Cerebral Cortex
Feedback Pathways From the Brain Regulate Sensory Coding Mechanisms
Top-Down Learning Mechanisms Influence Sensory Processing
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

18 Receptors of the Somatosensory System

Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Are the Primary Sensory Receptor Cells of the Somatosensory System
Peripheral Somatosensory Nerve Fibers Conduct Action Potentials at Different Rates
A Variety of Specialized Receptors Are Employed by the Somatosensory System
Mechanoreceptors Mediate Touch and Proprioception
Specialized End Organs Contribute to Mechanosensation
Proprioceptors Measure Muscle Activity and Joint Positions
Thermal Receptors Detect Changes in Skin Temperature
Nociceptors Mediate Pain
Itch Is a Distinctive Cutaneous Sensation
Visceral Sensations Represent the Status of Internal Organs
Action Potential Codes Transmit Somatosensory Information to the Brain
Sensory Ganglia Provide a Snapshot of Population Responses to Somatic Stimuli
Somatosensory Information Enters the Central Nervous System Via Spinal or Cranial Nerves
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

19 Touch

Active and Passive Touch Have Distinct Goals
The Hand Has Four Types of Mechanoreceptors
A Cell’s Receptive Field Defines Its Zone of Tactile Sensitivity
Two-Point Discrimination Tests Measure Tactile Acuity
Slowly Adapting Fibers Detect Object Pressure and Form
Rapidly Adapting Fibers Detect Motion and Vibration
Both Slowly and Rapidly Adapting Fibers Are Important for Grip Control
Tactile Information Is Processed in the Central Touch System
Spinal, Brain Stem, and Thalamic Circuits Segregate Touch and Proprioception
The Somatosensory Cortex Is Organized Into Functionally Specialized Columns
Cortical Columns Are Organized Somatotopically
The Receptive Fields of Cortical Neurons Integrate Information From Neighboring Receptors
Touch Information Becomes Increasingly Abstract in Successive Central Synapses
Cognitive Touch Is Mediated by Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Cortex
Active Touch Engages Sensorimotor Circuits in the Posterior Parietal Cortex
Lesions in Somatosensory Areas of the Brain Produce Specific Tactile Deficits
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

20 Pain

Noxious Insults Activate Thermal, Mechanical, and Polymodal Nociceptors
Signals From Nociceptors Are Conveyed to Neurons in the Dorsal Horn of the Spinal Cord
Hyperalgesia Has Both Peripheral and Central Origins
Four Major Ascending Pathways Convey Nociceptive Information From the Spinal Cord to the Brain
Several Thalamic Nuclei Relay Nociceptive Information to the Cerebral Cortex
The Perception of Pain Arises From and Can Be Controlled by Cortical Mechanisms
Anterior Cingulate and Insular Cortex Are Associated With the Perception of Pain
Pain Perception Is Regulated by a Balance of Activity in Nociceptive and Nonnociceptive Afferent Fibers
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain Produces Analgesia
Opioid Peptides Contribute to Endogenous Pain Control
Endogenous Opioid Peptides and Their Receptors Are Distributed in Pain-Modulatory Systems
Morphine Controls Pain by Activating Opioid Receptors
Tolerance to and Dependence on Opioids Are Distinct Phenomena
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

21 The Constructive Nature of Visual Processing

Visual Perception Is a Constructive Process
Visual Processing Is Mediated by the Geniculostriate Pathway
Form, Color, Motion, and Depth Are Processed in Discrete Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
The Receptive Fields of Neurons at Successive Relays in the Visual Pathway Provide Clues to How the Brain Analyzes Visual
Form
The Visual Cortex Is Organized Into Columns of Specialized Neurons
Intrinsic Cortical Circuits Transform Neural Information
Visual Information Is Represented by a Variety of Neural Codes
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

22 Low-Level Visual Processing: The Retina

The Photoreceptor Layer Samples the Visual Image
Ocular Optics Limit the Quality of the Retinal Image
There Are Two Types of Photoreceptors: Rods and Cones
Phototransduction Links the Absorption of a Photon to a Change in Membrane Conductance
Light Activates Pigment Molecules in the Photoreceptors
Excited Rhodopsin Activates a Phosphodiesterase Through the G Protein Transducin
Multiple Mechanisms Shut Off the Cascade
Defects in Phototransduction Cause Disease
Ganglion Cells Transmit Neural Images to the Brain
The Two Major Types of Ganglion Cells Are ON Cells and OFF Cells
Many Ganglion Cells Respond Strongly to Edges in the Image
The Output of Ganglion Cells Emphasizes Temporal Changes in Stimuli
Retinal Output Emphasizes Moving Objects
Several Ganglion Cell Types Project to the Brain Through Parallel Pathways
A Network of Interneurons Shapes the Retinal Output
Parallel Pathways Originate in Bipolar Cells
Spatial Filtering Is Accomplished by Lateral Inhibition
Temporal Filtering Occurs in Synapses and Feedback Circuits
Color Vision Begins in Cone-Selective Circuits
Congenital Color Blindness Takes Several Forms
Rod and Cone Circuits Merge in the Inner Retina
The Retina’s Sensitivity Adapts to Changes in Illumination
Light Adaptation Is Apparent in Retinal Processing and Visual Perception
Multiple Gain Controls Occur Within the Retina
Light Adaptation Alters Spatial Processing
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

23 Intermediate-Level Visual Processing and Visual Primitives

Internal Models of Object Geometry Help the Brain Analyze Shapes
Depth Perception Helps Segregate Objects From Background
Local Movement Cues Define Object Trajectory and Shape
Context Determines the Perception of Visual Stimuli
Brightness and Color Perception Depend on Context
Receptive-Field Properties Depend on Context
Cortical Connections, Functional Architecture, and Perception Are Intimately Related
Perceptual Learning Requires Plasticity in Cortical Connections
Visual Search Relies on the Cortical Representation of Visual Attributes and Shapes
Cognitive Processes Influence Visual Perception
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

24 High-Level Visual Processing: From Vision to Cognition

High-Level Visual Processing Is Concerned With Object Recognition
The Inferior Temporal Cortex Is the Primary Center for Object Recognition
Clinical Evidence Identifies the Inferior Temporal Cortex as Essential for Object Recognition
Neurons in the Inferior Temporal Cortex Encode Complex Visual Stimuli and Are Organized in Functionally Specialized Columns
The Primate Brain Contains Dedicated Systems for Face Processing
The Inferior Temporal Cortex Is Part of a Network of Cortical Areas Involved in Object Recognition
Object Recognition Relies on Perceptual Constancy
Categorical Perception of Objects Simplifies Behavior
Visual Memory Is a Component of High-Level Visual Processing
Implicit Visual Learning Leads to Changes in the Selectivity of Neuronal Responses
The Visual System Interacts With Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Systems
Associative Recall of Visual Memories Depends on Top-Down Activation of the Cortical Neurons That Process Visual Stimuli
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

25 Visual Processing for Attention and Action

The Brain Compensates for Eye Movements to Create a Stable Representation of the Visual World
Motor Commands for Saccades Are Copied to the Visual System
Oculomotor Proprioception Can Contribute to Spatially Accurate Perception and Behavior
Visual Scrutiny Is Driven by Attention and Arousal Circuits
The Parietal Cortex Provides Visual Information to the Motor System
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

26 Auditory Processing by the Cochlea

The Ear Has Three Functional Parts
Hearing Commences With the Capture of Sound Energy by the Ear
The Hydrodynamic and Mechanical Apparatus of the Cochlea Delivers Mechanical Stimuli to the Receptor Cells
The Basilar Membrane Is a Mechanical Analyzer of Sound Frequency
The Organ of Corti Is the Site of Mechanoelectrical Transduction in the Cochlea
Hair Cells Transform Mechanical Energy Into Neural Signals
Deflection of the Hair Bundle Initiates Mechanoelectrical Transduction
Mechanical Force Directly Opens Transduction Channels
Direct Mechanoelectrical Transduction Is Rapid
Deafness Genes Provide Components of the Mechanotransduction Machinery
Dynamic Feedback Mechanisms Determine the Sensitivity of the Hair Cells
Hair Cells Are Tuned to Specific Stimulus Frequencies
Hair Cells Adapt to Sustained Stimulation
Sound Energy Is Mechanically Amplified in the Cochlea
Cochlear Amplification Distorts Acoustic Inputs
The Hopf Bifurcation Provides a General Principle for Sound Detection
Hair Cells Use Specialized Ribbon Synapses
Auditory Information Flows Initially Through the Cochlear Nerve
Bipolar Neurons in the Spiral Ganglion Innervate Cochlear Hair Cells
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Encode Stimulus Frequency and Level
Sensorineural Hearing Loss Is Common but Is Amenable to Treatment
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

27 The Vestibular System

The Vestibular Labyrinth in the Inner Ear Contains Five Receptor Organs
Hair Cells Transduce Acceleration Stimuli Into Receptor Potentials
The Semicircular Canals Sense Head Rotation
The Otolith Organs Sense Linear Accelerations
Central Vestibular Nuclei Integrate Vestibular, Visual, Proprioceptive, and Motor Signals
The Vestibular Commissural System Communicates Bilateral Information
Combined Semicircular Canal and Otolith Signals Improve Inertial Sensing and Decrease Ambiguity of Translation Versus Tilt
Vestibular Signals Are a Critical Component of Head Movement Control
Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes Stabilize the Eyes When the Head Moves
The Rotational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Compensates for Head Rotation
The Translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Compensates for Linear Motion and Head Tilts
Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes Are Supplemented by Optokinetic Responses
The Cerebellum Adjusts the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex
The Thalamus and Cortex Use Vestibular Signals for Spatial Memory and Cognitive and Perceptual Functions
Vestibular Information Is Present in the Thalamus
Vestibular Information Is Widespread in the Cortex
Vestibular Signals Are Essential for Spatial Orientation and Spatial Navigation
Clinical Syndromes Elucidate Normal Vestibular Function
Caloric Irrigation as a Vestibular Diagnostic Tool
Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction Interferes With Normal Vision
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

28 Auditory Processing by the Central Nervous System

Sounds Convey Multiple Types of Information to Hearing Animals
The Neural Representation of Sound in Central Pathways Begins in the Cochlear Nuclei
The Cochlear Nerve Delivers Acoustic Information in Parallel Pathways to the Tonotopically Organized Cochlear Nuclei
The Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Extracts Temporal and Spectral Information About Sounds
The Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus Integrates Acoustic With Somatosensory Information in Making Use of Spectral Cues for Localizing
Sounds
The Superior Olivary Complex in Mammals Contains Separate Circuits for Detecting Interaural Time and Intensity Differences
The Medial Superior Olive Generates a Map of Interaural Time Differences
The Lateral Superior Olive Detects Interaural Intensity Differences
The Superior Olivary Complex Provides Feedback to the Cochlea
Ventral and Dorsal Nuclei of the Lateral Lemniscus Shape Responses in the Inferior Colliculus With Inhibition
Afferent Auditory Pathways Converge in the Inferior Colliculus
Sound Location Information From the Inferior Colliculus Creates a Spatial Map of Sound in the Superior Colliculus
The Inferior Colliculus Transmits Auditory Information to the Cerebral Cortex
Stimulus Selectivity Progressively Increases Along the Ascending Pathway
The Auditory Cortex Maps Numerous Aspects of Sound
A Second Sound-Localization Pathway From the Inferior Colliculus Involves the Cerebral Cortex in Gaze Control
Auditory Circuits in the Cerebral Cortex Are Segregated Into Separate Processing Streams
The Cerebral Cortex Modulates Sensory Processing in Subcortical Auditory Areas
The Cerebral Cortex Forms Complex Sound Representations
The Auditory Cortex Uses Temporal and Rate Codes to Represent Time-Varying Sounds
Primates Have Specialized Cortical Neurons That Encode Pitch and Harmonics
Insectivorous Bats Have Cortical Areas Specialized for Behaviorally Relevant Features of Sound
The Auditory Cortex Is Involved in Processing Vocal Feedback During Speaking
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

29 Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses

A Large Family of Olfactory Receptors Initiate the Sense of Smell
Mammals Share a Large Family of Odorant Receptors
Different Combinations of Receptors Encode Different Odorants
Olfactory Information Is Transformed Along the Pathway to the Brain
Odorants Are Encoded in the Nose by Dispersed Neurons
Sensory Inputs in the Olfactory Bulb Are Arranged by Receptor Type
The Olfactory Bulb Transmits Information to the Olfactory Cortex
Output From the Olfactory Cortex Reaches Higher Cortical and Limbic Areas
Olfactory Acuity Varies in Humans
Odors Elicit Characteristic Innate Behaviors
Pheromones Are Detected in Two Olfactory Structures
Invertebrate Olfactory Systems Can Be Used to Study Odor Coding and Behavior
Olfactory Cues Elicit Stereotyped Behaviors and Physiological Responses in the Nematode
Strategies for Olfaction Have Evolved Rapidly
The Gustatory System Controls the Sense of Taste
Taste Has Five Submodalities That Reflect Essential Dietary Requirements
Tastant Detection Occurs in Taste Buds
Each Taste Modality Is Detected by Distinct Sensory Receptors and Cells
Gustatory Information Is Relayed From the Periphery to the Gustatory Cortex
Perception of Flavor Depends on Gustatory, Olfactory, and Somatosensory Inputs
Insects Have Modality-Specific Taste Cells That Drive Innate Behaviors
Highlights
Selected Reading
References
Part V Movement

30 Principles of Sensorimotor Control

The Control of Movement Poses Challenges for the Nervous System
Actions Can Be Controlled Voluntarily, Rhythmically, or Reflexively
Motor Commands Arise Through a Hierarchy of Sensorimotor Processes
Motor Signals Are Subject to Feedforward and Feedback Control
Feedforward Control Is Required for Rapid Movements
Feedback Control Uses Sensory Signals to Correct Movements
Estimation of the Body’s Current State Relies on Sensory and Motor Signals
Prediction Can Compensate for Sensorimotor Delays
Sensory Processing Can Differ for Action and Perception
Motor Plans Translate Tasks Into Purposeful Movement
Stereotypical Patterns Are Employed in Many Movements
Motor Planning Can Be Optimal at Reducing Costs
Optimal Feedback Control Corrects for Errors in a Task-Dependent Manner
Multiple Processes Contribute to Motor Learning
Error-Based Learning Involves Adapting Internal Sensorimotor Models
Skill Learning Relies on Multiple Processes for Success
Sensorimotor Representations Constrain Learning
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

31 The Motor Unit and Muscle Action

The Motor Unit Is the Elementary Unit of Motor Control
A Motor Unit Consists of a Motor Neuron and Multiple Muscle Fibers
The Properties of Motor Units Vary
Physical Activity Can Alter Motor Unit Properties
Muscle Force Is Controlled by the Recruitment and Discharge Rate of Motor Units
The Input–Output Properties of Motor Neurons Are Modified by Input From the Brain Stem
Muscle Force Depends on the Structure of Muscle
The Sarcomere Is the Basic Organizational Unit of Contractile Proteins
Noncontractile Elements Provide Essential Structural Support
Contractile Force Depends on Muscle Fiber Activation, Length, and Velocity
Muscle Torque Depends on Musculoskeletal Geometry
Different Movements Require Different Activation Strategies
Contraction Velocity Can Vary in Magnitude and Direction
Movements Involve the Coordination of Many Muscles
Muscle Work Depends on the Pattern of Activation
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

32 Sensory-Motor Integration in the Spinal Cord

Reflex Pathways in the Spinal Cord Produce Coordinated Patterns of Muscle Contraction
The Stretch Reflex Acts to Resist the Lengthening of a Muscle
Neuronal Networks in the Spinal Cord Contribute to the Coordination of Reflex Responses
The Stretch Reflex Involves a Monosynaptic Pathway
Gamma Motor Neurons Adjust the Sensitivity of Muscle Spindles
The Stretch Reflex Also Involves Polysynaptic Pathways
Golgi Tendon Organs Provide Force-Sensitive Feedback to the Spinal Cord
Cutaneous Reflexes Produce Complex Movements That Serve Protective and Postural Functions
Convergence of Sensory Inputs on Interneurons Increases the Flexibility of Reflex Contributions to Movement
Sensory Feedback and Descending Motor Commands Interact at Common Spinal Neurons to Produce Voluntary Movements
Muscle Spindle Sensory Afferent Activity Reinforces Central Commands for Movements Through the Ia Monosynaptic Reflex Pathway
Modulation of Ia inhibitory Interneurons and Renshaw Cells by Descending Inputs Coordinate Muscle Activity at Joints
Transmission in Reflex Pathways May Be Facilitated or Inhibited by Descending Motor Commands
Descending Inputs Modulate Sensory Input to the Spinal Cord by Changing the Synaptic Efficiency of Primary Sensory Fibers
Part of the Descending Command for Voluntary Movements Is Conveyed Through Spinal Interneurons
Propriospinal Neurons in the C3–C4 Segments Mediate Part of the Corticospinal Command for Movement of the Upper Limb
Neurons in Spinal Reflex Pathways Are Activated Prior to Movement
Proprioceptive Reflexes Play an Important Role in Regulating Both Voluntary and Automatic Movements
Spinal Reflex Pathways Undergo Long-Term Changes
Damage to the Central Nervous System Produces Characteristic Alterations in Reflex Responses
Interruption of Descending Pathways to the Spinal Cord Frequently Produces Spasticity
Lesion of the Spinal Cord in Humans Leads to a Period of Spinal Shock Followed by Hyperreflexia
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

33 Locomotion

Locomotion Requires the Production of a Precise and Coordinated Pattern of Muscle Activation
The Motor Pattern of Stepping Is Organized at the Spinal Level
The Spinal Circuits Responsible for Locomotion Can Be Modified by Experience
Spinal Locomotor Networks Are Organized Into Rhythm- and Pattern-Generation Circuits
Somatosensory Inputs From Moving Limbs Modulate Locomotion
Proprioception Regulates the Timing and Amplitude of Stepping
Mechanoreceptors in the Skin Allow Stepping to Adjust to Unexpected Obstacles
Supraspinal Structures Are Responsible for Initiation and Adaptive Control of Stepping
Midbrain Nuclei Initiate and Maintain Locomotion and Control Speed
Midbrain Nuclei That Initiate Locomotion Project to Brain Stem Neurons
The Brain Stem Nuclei Regulate Posture During Locomotion
Visually Guided Locomotion Involves the Motor Cortex
Planning of Locomotion Involves the Posterior Parietal Cortex
The Cerebellum Regulates the Timing and Intensity of Descending Signals
The Basal Ganglia Modify Cortical and Brain Stem Circuits
Computational Neuroscience Provides Insights Into Locomotor Circuits
Neuronal Control of Human Locomotion Is Similar to That of Quadrupeds
Highlights
Suggested Reading
References

34 Voluntary Movement: Motor Cortices

Voluntary Movement Is the Physical Manifestation of an Intention to Act
Theoretical Frameworks Help Interpret Behavior and the Neural Basis of Voluntary Control
Many Frontal and Parietal Cortical Regions Are Involved in Voluntary Control
Descending Motor Commands Are Principally Transmitted by the Corticospinal Tract
Imposing a Delay Period Before the Onset of Movement Isolates the Neural Activity Associated With Planning From That
Associated With Executing the Action
Parietal Cortex Provides Information About the World and the Body for State Estimation to Plan and Execute Motor Actions
The Parietal Cortex Links Sensory Information to Motor Actions
Body Position and Motion Are Represented in Several Areas of Posterior Parietal Cortex
Spatial Goals Are Represented in Several Areas of Posterior Parietal Cortex
Internally Generated Feedback May Influence Parietal Cortex Activity
Premotor Cortex Supports Motor Selection and Planning
Medial Premotor Cortex Is Involved in the Contextual Control of Voluntary Actions
Dorsal Premotor Cortex Is Involved in Planning Sensory-Guided Movement of the Arm
Dorsal Premotor Cortex Is Involved in Applying Rules (Associations) That Govern Behavior
Ventral Premotor Cortex Is Involved in Planning Motor Actions of the Hand
Premotor Cortex May Contribute to Perceptual Decisions That Guide Motor Actions
Several Cortical Motor Areas Are Active When the Motor Actions of Others Are Being Observed
Many Aspects of Voluntary Control Are Distributed Across Parietal and Premotor Cortex
The Primary Motor Cortex Plays an Important Role in Motor Execution
The Primary Motor Cortex Includes a Detailed Map of the Motor Periphery
Some Neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex Project Directly to Spinal Motor Neurons
Activity in the Primary Motor Cortex Reflects Many Spatial and Temporal Features of Motor Output
Primary Motor Cortical Activity Also Reflects Higher-Order Features of Movement
Sensory Feedback Is Transmitted Rapidly to the Primary Motor Cortex and Other Cortical Regions
The Primary Motor Cortex Is Dynamic and Adaptable
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

35 The Control of Gaze

The Eye Is Moved by the Six Extraocular Muscles
Eye Movements Rotate the Eye in the Orbit
The Six Extraocular Muscles Form Three Agonist–Antagonist Pairs
Movements of the Two Eyes Are Coordinated
The Extraocular Muscles Are Controlled by Three Cranial Nerves
Six Neuronal Control Systems Keep the Eyes on Target
An Active Fixation System Holds the Fovea on a Stationary Target
The Saccadic System Points the Fovea Toward Objects of Interest
The Motor Circuits for Saccades Lie in the Brain Stem
Horizontal Saccades Are Generated in the Pontine Reticular Formation
Vertical Saccades Are Generated in the Mesencephalic Reticular Formation
Brain Stem Lesions Result in Characteristic Deficits in Eye Movements
Saccades Are Controlled by the Cerebral Cortex Through the Superior Colliculus
The Superior Colliculus Integrates Visual and Motor Information into Oculomotor Signals for the Brain Stem
The Rostral Superior Colliculus Facilitates Visual Fixation
The Basal Ganglia and Two Regions of Cerebral Cortex Control the Superior Colliculus
The Control of Saccades Can Be Modified by Experience
Some Rapid Gaze Shifts Require Coordinated Head and Eye Movements
The Smooth-Pursuit System Keeps Moving Targets on the Fovea
The Vergence System Aligns the Eyes to Look at Targets at Different Depths
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

36 Posture

Equilibrium and Orientation Underlie Posture Control
Postural Equilibrium Controls the Body’s Center of Mass
Postural Orientation Anticipates Disturbances to Balance
Postural Responses and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments Use Stereotyped Strategies and Synergies
Automatic Postural Responses Compensate for Sudden Disturbances
Anticipatory Postural Adjustments Compensate for Voluntary Movement
Posture Control Is Integrated With Locomotion
Somatosensory, Vestibular, and Visual Information Must Be Integrated and Interpreted to Maintain Posture
Somatosensory Signals Are Important for Timing and Direction of Automatic Postural Responses
Vestibular Information Is Important for Balance on Unstable Surfaces and During Head Movements
Visual Inputs Provide the Postural System With Orientation and Motion Information
Information From a Single Sensory Modality Can Be Ambiguous
The Postural Control System Uses a Body Schema That Incorporates Internal Models for Balance
Control of Posture Is Task Dependent
Task Requirements Determine the Role of Each Sensory System in Postural Equilibrium and Orientation
Control of Posture Is Distributed in the Nervous System
Spinal Cord Circuits Are Sufficient for Maintaining Antigravity Support but Not Balance
The Brain Stem and Cerebellum Integrate Sensory Signals for Posture
The Spinocerebellum and Basal Ganglia Are Important in Adaptation of Posture
Cerebral Cortex Centers Contribute to Postural Control
Highlights
Suggested Reading
References

37 The Cerebellum

Damage of the Cerebellum Causes Distinctive Symptoms and Signs
Damage Results in Characteristic Abnormalities of Movement and Posture
Damage Affects Specific Sensory and Cognitive Abilities
The Cerebellum Indirectly Controls Movement Through Other Brain Structures
The Cerebellum Is a Large Subcortical Brain Structure
The Cerebellum Connects With the Cerebral Cortex Through Recurrent Loops
Different Movements Are Controlled by Functional Longitudinal Zones
The Cerebellar Cortex Comprises Repeating Functional Units Having the Same Basic Microcircuit
The Cerebellar Cortex Is Organized Into Three Functionally Specialized Layers
The Climbing-Fiber and Mossy-Fiber Afferent Systems Encode and Process Information Differently
The Cerebellar Microcircuit Architecture Suggests a Canonical Computation
The Cerebellum Is Hypothesized to Perform Several General Computational Functions
The Cerebellum Contributes to Feedforward Sensorimotor Control
The Cerebellum Incorporates an Internal Model of the Motor Apparatus
The Cerebellum Integrates Sensory Inputs and Corollary Discharge
The Cerebellum Contributes to Timing Control
The Cerebellum Participates in Motor Skill Learning
Climbing-Fiber Activity Changes the Synaptic Efficacy of Parallel Fibers
The Cerebellum Is Necessary for Motor Learning in Several Different Movement Systems
Learning Occurs at Several Sites in the Cerebellum
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

38 The Basal Ganglia

The Basal Ganglia Network Consists of Three Principal Input Nuclei, Two Main Output Nuclei, and One Intrinsic Nucleus
The Striatum, Subthalamic Nucleus, and Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta/Ventral Tegmental Area Are the Three Principal Input
Nuclei of the Basal Ganglia
The Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata and the Internal Globus Pallidus Are the Two Principal Output Nuclei of the Basal
Ganglia
The External Globus Pallidus Is Mostly an Intrinsic Structure of the Basal Ganglia
The Internal Circuitry of the Basal Ganglia Regulates How the Components Interact
The Traditional Model of the Basal Ganglia Emphasizes Direct and Indirect Pathways
Detailed Anatomical Analyses Reveal a More Complex Organization
Basal Ganglia Connections With External Structures Are Characterized by Reentrant Loops
Inputs Define Functional Territories in the Basal Ganglia
Output Neurons Project to the External Structures That Provide Input
Reentrant Loops Are a Cardinal Principle of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
Physiological Signals Provide Further Clues to Function in the Basal Ganglia
The Striatum and Subthalamic Nucleus Receive Signals Mainly from the Cerebral Cortex, Thalamus, and Ventral Midbrain
Ventral Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Receive Input From External Structures and Other Basal Ganglia Nuclei
Disinhibition Is the Final Expression of Basal Ganglia Output
Throughout Vertebrate Evolution, the Basal Ganglia Have Been Highly Conserved
Action Selection Is a Recurring Theme in Basal Ganglia Research
All Vertebrates Face the Challenge of Choosing One Behavior From Several Competing Options
Selection Is Required for Motivational, Affective, Cognitive, and Sensorimotor Processing
The Neural Architecture of the Basal Ganglia Is Configured to Make Selections
Intrinsic Mechanisms in the Basal Ganglia Promote Selection
Selection Function of the Basal Ganglia Questioned
Reinforcement Learning Is an Inherent Property of a Selection Architecture
Intrinsic Reinforcement Is Mediated by Phasic Dopamine Signaling Within the Basal Ganglia Nuclei
Extrinsic Reinforcement Could Bias Selection by Operating in Afferent Structures
Behavioral Selection in the Basal Ganglia Is Under Goal-Directed and Habitual Control
Diseases of the Basal Ganglia May Involve Disorders of Selection
A Selection Mechanism Is Likely to Be Vulnerable to Several Potential Malfunctions
Parkinson Disease Can Be Viewed in Part as a Failure to Select Sensorimotor Options
Huntington Disease May Reflect a Functional Imbalance Between the Direct and Indirect Pathways
Schizophrenia May Be Associated With a General Failure to Suppress Nonselected Options
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette Syndrome May Also Be Characterized by Intrusions of Nonselected Options
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Reflects the Presence of Pathologically Dominant Options
Addictions Are Associated With Disorders of Reinforcement Mechanisms and Habitual Goals
Highlights
Suggested Reading
References

39 Brain–Machine Interfaces

BMIs Measure and Modulate Neural Activity to Help Restore Lost Capabilities
Cochlear Implants and Retinal Prostheses Can Restore Lost Sensory Capabilities
Motor and Communication BMIs Can Restore Lost Motor Capabilities
Pathological Neural Activity Can Be Regulated by Deep Brain Stimulation and Antiseizure BMIs
Replacement Part BMIs Can Restore Lost Brain Processing Capabilities
Measuring and Modulating Neural Activity Rely on Advanced Neurotechnology
BMIs Leverage the Activity of Many Neurons to Decode Movements
Decoding Algorithms Estimate Intended Movements From Neural Activity
Discrete Decoders Estimate Movement Goals
Continuous Decoders Estimate Moment-by-Moment Details of Movements
Increases in Performance and Capabilities of Motor and Communication BMIs Enable Clinical Translation
Subjects Can Type Messages Using Communication BMIs
Subjects Can Reach and Grasp Objects Using BMI-Directed Prosthetic Arms
Subjects Can Reach and Grasp Objects Using BMI-Directed Stimulation of Paralyzed Arms
Subjects Can Use Sensory Feedback Delivered by Cortical Stimulation During BMI Control
BMIs Can Be Used to Advance Basic Neuroscience
BMIs Raise New Neuroethics Considerations
Highlights
Selected Reading
References
Part VI The Biology of Emotion, Motivation, and Homeostasis

40 The Brain Stem

The Cranial Nerves Are Homologous to the Spinal Nerves
Cranial Nerves Mediate the Sensory and Motor Functions of the Face and Head and the Autonomic Functions of the Body
Cranial Nerves Leave the Skull in Groups and Often Are Injured Together
The Organization of the Cranial Nerve Nuclei Follows the Same Basic Plan as the Sensory and Motor Areas of the Spinal Cord
Embryonic Cranial Nerve Nuclei Have a Segmental Organization
Adult Cranial Nerve Nuclei Have a Columnar Organization
The Organization of the Brain Stem Differs From the Spinal Cord in Three Important Ways
Neuronal Ensembles in the Brain Stem Reticular Formation Coordinate Reflexes and Simple Behaviors Necessary for Homeostasis
and Survival
Cranial Nerve Reflexes Involve Mono- and Polysynaptic Brain Stem Relays
Pattern Generators Coordinate More Complex Stereotypic Behaviors
Control of Breathing Provides an Example of How Pattern Generators Are Integrated Into More Complex Behaviors
Monoaminergic Neurons in the Brain Stem Modulate Sensory, Motor, Autonomic, and Behavioral Functions
Many Modulatory Systems Use Monoamines as Neurotransmitters
Monoaminergic Neurons Share Many Cellular Properties
Autonomic Regulation and Breathing Are Modulated by Monoaminergic Pathways
Pain Perception Is Modulated by Monoamine Antinociceptive Pathways
Motor Activity Is Facilitated by Monoaminergic Pathways
Ascending Monoaminergic Projections Modulate Forebrain Systems for Motivation and Reward
Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Neurons Maintain Arousal by Modulating Forebrain Neurons
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

41 The Hypothalamus: Autonomic, Hormonal, and Behavioral Control of Survival

Homeostasis Keeps Physiological Parameters Within a Narrow Range and Is Essential for Survival
The Hypothalamus Coordinates Homeostatic Regulation
The Hypothalamus Is Commonly Divided Into Three Rostrocaudal Regions
Modality-Specific Hypothalamic Neurons Link Interoceptive Sensory Feedback With Outputs That Control Adaptive Behaviors and
Physiological Responses
Modality-Specific Hypothalamic Neurons Also Receive Descending Feedforward Input Regarding Anticipated Homeostatic Challenges
The Autonomic System Links the Brain to Physiological Responses
Visceral Motor Neurons in the Autonomic System Are Organized Into Ganglia
Preganglionic Neurons Are Localized in Three Regions Along the Brain Stem and Spinal Cord
Sympathetic Ganglia Project to Many Targets Throughout the Body
Parasympathetic Ganglia Innervate Single Organs
The Enteric Ganglia Regulate the Gastrointestinal Tract
Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine Are the Principal Transmitters of Autonomic Motor Neurons
Autonomic Responses Involve Cooperation Between the Autonomic Divisions
Visceral Sensory Information Is Relayed to the Brain Stem and Higher Brain Structures
Central Control of Autonomic Function Can Involve the Periaqueductal Gray, Medial Prefrontal Cortex, and Amygdala
The Neuroendocrine System Links the Brain to Physiological Responses Through Hormones
Hypothalamic Axon Terminals in the Posterior Pituitary Release Oxytocin and Vasopressin Directly Into the Blood
Endocrine Cells in the Anterior Pituitary Secrete Hormones in Response to Specific Factors Released by Hypothalamic Neurons
Dedicated Hypothalamic Systems Control Specific Homeostatic Parameters
Body Temperature Is Controlled by Neurons in the Median Preoptic Nucleus
Water Balance and the Related Thirst Drive Are Controlled by Neurons in the Vascular Organ of the Lamina Terminalis, Median
Preoptic Nucleus, and Subfornical Organ
Energy Balance and the Related Hunger Drive Are Controlled by Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus
Sexually Dimorphic Regions in the Hypothalamus Control Sex, Aggression, and Parenting
Sexual Behavior and Aggression Are Controlled by the Preoptic Hypothalamic Area and a Subarea of the Ventromedial
Hypothalamic Nucleus
Parental Behavior Is Controlled by the Preoptic Hypothalamic Area
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

42 Emotion

The Modern Search for the Neural Circuitry of Emotion Began in the Late 19th Century
The Amygdala Has Been Implicated in Both Learned and Innate Fear
The Amygdala Has Been Implicated in Innate Fear in Animals
The Amygdala Is Important for Fear in Humans
The Amygdala’s Role Extends to Positive Emotions
Emotional Responses Can Be Updated Through Extinction and Regulation
Emotion Can Influence Cognitive Processes
Many Other Brain Areas Contribute to Emotional Processing
Functional Neuroimaging Is Contributing to Our Understanding of Emotion in Humans
Functional Imaging Has Identified Neural Correlates of Feelings
Emotion Is Related to Homeostasis
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

43 Motivation, Reward, and Addictive States

Motivational States Influence Goal-Directed Behavior
Both Internal and External Stimuli Contribute to Motivational States
Rewards Can Meet Both Regulatory and Nonregulatory Needs on Short and Long Timescales
The Brain’s Reward Circuitry Provides a Biological Substrate for Goal Selection
Dopamine May Act as a Learning Signal
Drug Addiction Is a Pathological Reward State
All Drugs of Abuse Target Neurotransmitter Receptors, Transporters, or Ion Channels
Repeated Exposure to a Drug of Abuse Induces Lasting Behavioral Adaptations
Lasting Molecular Adaptations Are Induced in Brain Reward Regions by Repeated Drug Exposure
Lasting Cellular and Circuit Adaptations Mediate Aspects of the Drug-Addicted State
Natural Addictions Share Biological Mechanisms With Drug Addictions
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

44 Sleep and Wakefulness

Sleep Consists of Alternating Periods of REM Sleep and Non-REM Sleep
The Ascending Arousal System Promotes Wakefulness
The Ascending Arousal System in the Brain Stem and Hypothalamus Innervates the Forebrain
Damage to the Ascending Arousal System Causes Coma
Circuits Composed of Mutually Inhibitory Neurons Control Transitions From Wake to Sleep and From Non-REM to REM Sleep
Sleep Is Regulated by Homeostatic and Circadian Drives
The Homeostatic Pressure for Sleep Depends on Humoral Factors
Circadian Rhythms Are Controlled by a Biological Clock in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Circadian Control of Sleep Depends on Hypothalamic Relays
Sleep Loss Impairs Cognition and Memory
Sleep Changes With Age
Disruptions in Sleep Circuitry Contribute to Many Sleep Disorders
Insomnia May Be Caused by Incomplete Inhibition of the Arousal System
Sleep Apnea Fragments Sleep and Impairs Cognition
Narcolepsy Is Caused by a Loss of Orexinergic Neurons
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Is Caused by Failure of REM Sleep Paralysis Circuits
Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Disrupt Sleep
Non-REM Parasomnias Include Sleepwalking, Sleep Talking, and Night Terrors
Sleep Has Many Functions
Highlights
Selected Reading
References
Part VII Development and the Emergence of Behavior

45 Patterning the Nervous System

The Neural Tube Arises From the Ectoderm
Secreted Signals Promote Neural Cell Fate
Development of the Neural Plate Is Induced by Signals From the Organizer Region
Neural Induction Is Mediated by Peptide Growth Factors and Their Inhibitors
Rostrocaudal Patterning of the Neural Tube Involves Signaling Gradients and Secondary Organizing Centers
The Neural Tube Becomes Regionalized Early in Development
Signals From the Mesoderm and Endoderm Define the Rostrocaudal Pattern of the Neural Plate
Signals From Organizing Centers Within the Neural Tube Pattern the Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain
Repressive Interactions Divide the Hindbrain Into Segments
Dorsoventral Patterning of the Neural Tube Involves Similar Mechanisms at Different Rostrocaudal Levels
The Ventral Neural Tube Is Patterned by Sonic Hedgehog Protein Secreted from the Notochord and Floor Plate
The Dorsal Neural Tube Is Patterned by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Dorsoventral Patterning Mechanisms Are Conserved Along the Rostrocaudal Extent of the Neural Tube
Local Signals Determine Functional Subclasses of Neurons
Rostrocaudal Position Is a Major Determinant of Motor Neuron Subtype
Local Signals and Transcriptional Circuits Further Diversify Motor Neuron Subtypes
The Developing Forebrain Is Patterned by Intrinsic and Extrinsic Influences
Inductive Signals and Transcription Factor Gradients Establish Regional Differentiation
Afferent Inputs Also Contribute to Regionalization
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

46 Differentiation and Survival of Nerve Cells

The Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells Involves Symmetric and Asymmetric Cell Divisions
Radial Glial Cells Serve as Neural Progenitors and Structural Scaffolds
The Generation of Neurons and Glial Cells Is Regulated by Delta-Notch Signaling and Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription
Factors
The Layers of the Cerebral Cortex Are Established by Sequential Addition of Newborn Neurons
Neurons Migrate Long Distances From Their Site of Origin to Their Final Position
Excitatory Cortical Neurons Migrate Radially Along Glial Guides
Cortical Interneurons Arise Subcortically and Migrate Tangentially to Cortex
Neural Crest Cell Migration in the Peripheral Nervous System Does Not Rely on Scaffolding
Structural and Molecular Innovations Underlie the Expansion of the Human Cerebral Cortex
Intrinsic Programs and Extrinsic Factors Determine the Neurotransmitter Phenotypes of Neurons
Neurotransmitter Choice Is a Core Component of Transcriptional Programs of Neuronal Differentiation
Signals From Synaptic Inputs and Targets Can Influence the Transmitter Phenotypes of Neurons
The Survival of a Neuron Is Regulated by Neurotrophic Signals From the Neuron’s Target
The Neurotrophic Factor Hypothesis Was Confirmed by the Discovery of Nerve Growth Factor
Neurotrophins Are the Best-Studied Neurotrophic Factors
Neurotrophic Factors Suppress a Latent Cell Death Program
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

47 The Growth and Guidance of Axons

Differences Between Axons and Dendrites Emerge Early in Development
Dendrites Are Patterned by Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors
The Growth Cone Is a Sensory Transducer and a Motor Structure
Molecular Cues Guide Axons to Their Targets
The Growth of Retinal Ganglion Axons Is Oriented in a Series of Discrete Steps
Growth Cones Diverge at the Optic Chiasm
Gradients of Ephrins Provide Inhibitory Signals in the Brain
Axons From Some Spinal Neurons Are Guided Across the Midline
Netrins Direct Developing Commissural Axons Across the Midline
Chemoattractant and Chemorepellent Factors Pattern the Midline
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

48 Formation and Elimination of Synapses

Neurons Recognize Specific Synaptic Targets
Recognition Molecules Promote Selective Synapse Formation in the Visual System
Sensory Receptors Promote Targeting of Olfactory Neurons
Different Synaptic Inputs Are Directed to Discrete Domains of the Postsynaptic Cell
Neural Activity Sharpens Synaptic Specificity
Principles of Synaptic Differentiation Are Revealed at the Neuromuscular Junction
Differentiation of Motor Nerve Terminals Is Organized by Muscle Fibers
Differentiation of the Postsynaptic Muscle Membrane Is Organized by the Motor Nerve
The Nerve Regulates Transcription of Acetylcholine Receptor Genes
The Neuromuscular Junction Matures in a Series of Steps
Central Synapses and Neuromuscular Junctions Develop in Similar Ways
Neurotransmitter Receptors Become Localized at Central Synapses
Synaptic Organizing Molecules Pattern Central Nerve Terminals
Some Synapses Are Eliminated After Birth
Glial Cells Regulate Both Formation and Elimination of Synapses
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

49 Experience and the Refinement of Synaptic Connections

Development of Human Mental Function Is Influenced by Early Experience
Early Experience Has Lifelong Effects on Social Behaviors
Development of Visual Perception Requires Visual Experience
Development of Binocular Circuits in the Visual Cortex Depends on Postnatal Activity
Visual Experience Affects the Structure and Function of the Visual Cortex
Patterns of Electrical Activity Organize Binocular Circuits
Reorganization of Visual Circuits During a Critical Period Involves Alterations in Synaptic Connections
Cortical Reorganization Depends on Changes in Both Excitation and Inhibition
Synaptic Structures Are Altered During the Critical Period
Thalamic Inputs Are Remodeled During the Critical Period
Synaptic Stabilization Contributes to Closing the Critical Period
Experience-Independent Spontaneous Neural Activity Leads to Early Circuit Refinement
Activity-Dependent Refinement of Connections Is a General Feature of Brain Circuitry
Many Aspects of Visual System Development Are Activity-Dependent
Sensory Modalities Are Coordinated During a Critical Period
Different Functions and Brain Regions Have Different Critical Periods of Development
Critical Periods Can Be Reopened in Adulthood
Visual and Auditory Maps Can Be Aligned in Adults
Binocular Circuits Can Be Remodeled in Adults
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

50 Repairing the Damaged Brain

Damage to the Axon Affects Both the Neuron and Neighboring Cells
Axon Degeneration Is an Active Process
Axotomy Leads to Reactive Responses in Nearby Cells
Central Axons Regenerate Poorly After Injury
Therapeutic Interventions May Promote Regeneration of Injured Central Neurons
Environmental Factors Support the Regeneration of Injured Axons
Components of Myelin Inhibit Neurite Outgrowth
Injury-Induced Scarring Hinders Axonal Regeneration
An Intrinsic Growth Program Promotes Regeneration
Formation of New Connections by Intact Axons Can Lead to Recovery of Function Following Injury
Neurons in the Injured Brain Die but New Ones Can Be Born
Therapeutic Interventions May Retain or Replace Injured Central Neurons
Transplantation of Neurons or Their Progenitors Can Replace Lost Neurons
Stimulation of Neurogenesis in Regions of Injury May Contribute to Restoring Function
Transplantation of Nonneuronal Cells or Their Progenitors Can Improve Neuronal Function
Restoration of Function Is the Aim of Regenerative Therapies
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

51 Sexual Differentiation of the Nervous System

Genes and Hormones Determine Physical Differences Between Males and Females
Chromosomal Sex Directs the Gonadal Differentiation of the Embryo
Gonads Synthesize Hormones That Promote Sexual Differentiation
Disorders of Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis Affect Sexual Differentiation
Sexual Differentiation of the Nervous System Generates Sexually Dimorphic Behaviors
Erectile Function Is Controlled by a Sexually Dimorphic Circuit in the Spinal Cord
Song Production in Birds Is Controlled by Sexually Dimorphic Circuits in the Forebrain
Mating Behavior in Mammals Is Controlled by a Sexually Dimorphic Neural Circuit in the Hypothalamus
Environmental Cues Regulate Sexually Dimorphic Behaviors
Pheromones Control Partner Choice in Mice
Early Experience Modifies Later Maternal Behavior
A Set of Core Mechanisms Underlies Many Sexual Dimorphisms in the Brain and Spinal Cord
The Human Brain Is Sexually Dimorphic
Sexual Dimorphisms in Humans May Arise From Hormonal Action or Experience
Dimorphic Structures in the Brain Correlate with Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation
Highlights
Selected Reading
References
Part VIII Learning, Memory, Language and Cognition

52 Learning and Memory

Short-Term and Long-Term Memory Involve Different Neural Systems
Short-Term Memory Maintains Transient Representations of Information Relevant to Immediate Goals
Information Stored in Short-Term Memory Is Selectively Transferred to Long-Term Memory
The Medial Temporal Lobe Is Critical for Episodic Long-Term Memory
Episodic Memory Processing Involves Encoding, Storage, Retrieval, and Consolidation
Episodic Memory Involves Interactions Between the Medial Temporal Lobe and Association Cortices
Episodic Memory Contributes to Imagination and Goal-Directed Behavior
The Hippocampus Supports Episodic Memory by Building Relational Associations
Implicit Memory Supports a Range of Behaviors in Humans and Animals
Different Forms of Implicit Memory Involve Different Neural Circuits
Implicit Memory Can Be Associative or Nonassociative
Operant Conditioning Involves Associating a Specific Behavior With a Reinforcing Event
Associative Learning Is Constrained by the Biology of the Organism
Errors and Imperfections in Memory Shed Light on Normal Memory Processes
Highlights
Suggested Reading
References

53 Cellular Mechanisms of Implicit Memory Storage and the Biological Basis of Individuality

Storage of Implicit Memory Involves Changes in the Effectiveness of Synaptic Transmission
Habituation Results From Presynaptic Depression of Synaptic Transmission
Sensitization Involves Presynaptic Facilitation of Synaptic Transmission
Classical Threat Conditioning Involves Facilitation of Synaptic Transmission
Long-Term Storage of Implicit Memory Involves Synaptic Changes Mediated by the cAMP-PKA-CREB Pathway
Cyclic AMP Signaling Has a Role in Long-Term Sensitization
The Role of Noncoding RNAs in the Regulation of Transcription
Long-Term Synaptic Facilitation Is Synapse Specific
Maintaining Long-Term Synaptic Facilitation Requires a Prion-Like Protein Regulator of Local Protein Synthesis
Memory Stored in a Sensory-Motor Synapse Becomes Destabilized Following Retrieval but Can Be Restabilized
Classical Threat Conditioning of Defensive Responses in Flies Also Uses the cAMP-PKA-CREB Pathway
Memory of Threat Learning in Mammals Involves the Amygdala
Learning-Induced Changes in the Structure of the Brain Contribute to the Biological Basis of Individuality
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

54 The Hippocampus and the Neural Basis of Explicit Memory Storage

Explicit Memory in Mammals Involves Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus
Long-Term Potentiation at Distinct Hippocampal Pathways Is Essential for Explicit Memory Storage
Different Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Contribute to the Forms of Expression of Long-Term Potentiation
Long-Term Potentiation Has Early and Late Phases
Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity Provides a More Natural Mechanism for Altering Synaptic Strength
Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus Has Properties That Make It Useful as A Mechanism for Memory Storage
Spatial Memory Depends on Long-Term Potentiation
Explicit Memory Storage Also Depends on Long-Term Depression of Synaptic Transmission
Memory Is Stored in Cell Assemblies
Different Aspects of Explicit Memory Are Processed in Different Subregions of the Hippocampus
The Dentate Gyrus Is Important for Pattern Separation
The CA3 Region Is Important for Pattern Completion
The CA2 Region Encodes Social Memory
A Spatial Map of the External World Is Formed in the Hippocampus
Entorhinal Cortex Neurons Provide a Distinct Representation of Space
Place Cells Are Part of the Substrate for Spatial Memory
Disorders of Autobiographical Memory Result From Functional Perturbations in the Hippocampus
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

55 Language

Language Has Many Structural Levels: Phonemes, Morphemes, Words, and Sentences
Language Acquisition in Children Follows a Universal Pattern
The “Universalist” Infant Becomes Linguistically Specialized by Age 1
The Visual System Is Engaged in Language Production and Perception
Prosodic Cues Are Learned as Early as In Utero
Transitional Probabilities Help Distinguish Words in Continuous Speech
There Is a Critical Period for Language Learning
The “Parentese” Speaking Style Enhances Language Learning
Successful Bilingual Learning Depends on the Age at Which the Second Language Is Learned
A New Model for the Neural Basis of Language Has Emerged
Numerous Specialized Cortical Regions Contribute to Language Processing
The Neural Architecture for Language Develops Rapidly During Infancy
The Left Hemisphere Is Dominant for Language
Prosody Engages Both Right and Left Hemispheres Depending on the Information Conveyed
Studies of the Aphasias Have Provided Insights into Language Processing
Broca’s Aphasia Results From a Large Lesion in the Left Frontal Lobe
Wernicke’s Aphasia Results From Damage to Left Posterior Temporal Lobe Structures
Conduction Aphasia Results From Damage to a Sector of Posterior Language Areas
Global Aphasia Results From Widespread Damage to Several Language Centers
Transcortical Aphasias Result From Damage to Areas Near Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas
Less Common Aphasias Implicate Additional Brain Areas Important for Language
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

56 Decision-Making and Consciousness

Perceptual Discriminations Require a Decision Rule
A Simple Decision Rule Is the Application of a Threshold to a Representation of the Evidence
Perceptual Decisions Involving Deliberation Mimic Aspects of Real-Life Decisions Involving Cognitive Faculties
Neurons in Sensory Areas of the Cortex Supply the Noisy Samples of Evidence to Decision-Making
Accumulation of Evidence to a Threshold Explains the Speed Versus Accuracy Trade-Off
Neurons in the Parietal and Prefrontal Association Cortex Represent a Decision Variable
Perceptual Decision-Making Is a Model for Reasoning From Samples of Evidence
Decisions About Preference Use Evidence About Value
Decision-Making Offers a Framework for Understanding Thought Processes, States of Knowing, and States of Awareness
Consciousness Can be Understood Through the Lens of Decision Making
Highlights
Selected Reading
References
Part IX Diseases of the Nervous System

57 Diseases of the Peripheral Nerve and Motor Unit

Disorders of the Peripheral Nerve, Neuromuscular Junction, and Muscle Can Be Distinguished Clinically
A Variety of Diseases Target Motor Neurons and Peripheral Nerves
Motor Neuron Diseases Do Not Affect Sensory Neurons (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)
Diseases of Peripheral Nerves Affect Conduction of the Action Potential
The Molecular Basis of Some Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies Has Been Defined
Disorders of Synaptic Transmission at the Neuromuscular Junction Have Multiple Causes
Myasthenia Gravis Is the Best-Studied Example of a Neuromuscular Junction Disease
Treatment of Myasthenia Is Based on the Physiological Effects and Autoimmune Pathogenesis of the Disease
There Are Two Distinct Congenital Forms of Myasthenia Gravis
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome and Botulism Also Alter Neuromuscular Transmission
Diseases of Skeletal Muscle Can Be Inherited or Acquired
Dermatomyositis Exemplifies Acquired Myopathy
Muscular Dystrophies Are the Most Common Inherited Myopathies
Some Inherited Diseases of Skeletal Muscle Arise From Genetic Defects in Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

58 Seizures and Epilepsy

Classification of Seizures and the Epilepsies Is Important for Pathogenesis and Treatment
Seizures Are Temporary Disruptions of Brain Function
Epilepsy Is a Chronic Condition of Recurrent Seizures
The Electroencephalogram Represents the Collective Activity of Cortical Neurons
Focal Onset Seizures Originate Within a Small Group of Neurons
Neurons in a Seizure Focus Have Abnormal Bursting Activity
The Breakdown of Surround Inhibition Leads to Synchronization
The Spread of Seizure Activity Involves Normal Cortical Circuitry
Generalized Onset Seizures Are Driven by Thalamocortical Circuits
Locating the Seizure Focus Is Critical to the Surgical Treatment of Epilepsy
Prolonged Seizures Can Cause Brain Damage
Repeated Convulsive Seizures Are a Medical Emergency
Excitotoxicity Underlies Seizure-Related Brain Damage
The Factors Leading to Development of Epilepsy Are Poorly Understood
Mutations in Ion Channels Are Among the Genetic Causes of Epilepsy
The Genesis of Acquired Epilepsies Is a Maladaptive Response to Injury
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

59 Disorders of Conscious and Unconscious Mental Processes

Conscious and Unconscious Cognitive Processes Have Distinct Neural Correlates
Differences Between Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Perception Can Be Seen in Exaggerated Form After Brain Damage
The Control of Action Is Largely Unconscious
The Conscious Recall of Memories Is a Creative Process
Behavioral Observation Needs to Be Supplemented With Subjective Reports
Verification of Subjective Reports Is Challenging
Malingering and Hysteria Can Lead to Unreliable Subjective Reports
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

60 Disorders of Thought and Volition in Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Is Characterized by Cognitive Impairments, Deficit Symptoms, and Psychotic Symptoms
Schizophrenia Has a Characteristic Course of Illness With Onset During the Second and Third Decades of Life
The Psychotic Symptoms of Schizophrenia Tend to Be Episodic
The Risk of Schizophrenia Is Highly Influenced by Genes
Schizophrenia Is Characterized by Abnormalities in Brain Structure and Function
Loss of Gray Matter in the Cerebral Cortex Appears to Result From Loss of Synaptic Contacts Rather Than Loss of Cells
Abnormalities in Brain Development During Adolescence May Be Responsible for Schizophrenia
Antipsychotic Drugs Act on Dopaminergic Systems in the Brain
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

61 Disorders of Mood and Anxiety

Mood Disorders Can Be Divided Into Two General Classes: Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder Differs Significantly From Normal Sadness
Major Depressive Disorder Often Begins Early in Life
A Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder Requires an Episode of Mania
Anxiety Disorders Represent Significant Dysregulation of Fear Circuitry
Both Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors Contribute to Mood and Anxiety Disorders
Depression and Stress Share Overlapping Neural Mechanisms
Dysfunctions of Human Brain Structures and Circuits Involved in Mood and Anxiety Disorders Can Be Identified by Neuroimaging
Identification of Abnormally Functioning Neural Circuits Helps Explain Symptoms and May Suggest Treatments
A Decrease in Hippocampal Volume Is Associated With Mood Disorders
Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders Can Be Treated Effectively
Current Antidepressant Drugs Affect Monoaminergic Neural Systems
Ketamine Shows Promise as a Rapidly Acting Drug to Treat Major Depressive Disorder
Psychotherapy Is Effective in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders
Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Highly Effective Against Depression
Newer Forms of Neuromodulation Are Being Developed to Treat Depression
Bipolar Disorder Can Be Treated With Lithium and Several Anticonvulsant Drugs
Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs Are Useful Treatments for Bipolar Disorder
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

62 Disorders Affecting Social Cognition: Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder Phenotypes Share Characteristic Behavioral Features
Autism Spectrum Disorder Phenotypes Also Share Distinctive Cognitive Abnormalities
Social Communication Is Impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Mind Blindness Hypothesis
Other Social Mechanisms Contribute to Autism Spectrum Disorder
People With Autism Show a Lack of Behavioral Flexibility
Some Individuals With Autism Have Special Talents
Genetic Factors Increase Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Rare Genetic Syndromes Have Provided Initial Insights Into the Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Fragile X Syndrome
Rett Syndrome
Williams Syndrome
Angelman Syndrome and Prader-Willi Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental Syndromes Provide Insight Into the Mechanisms of Social Cognition
The Complex Genetics of Common Forms of Autism Spectrum Disorder Are Being Clarified
Genetics and Neuropathology Are Illuminating the Neural Mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Genetic Findings Can Be Interpreted Using Systems Biological Approaches
Autism Spectrum Disorder Genes Have Been Studied in a Variety of Model Systems
Postmortem and Brain Tissue Studies Provide Insight Into Autism Spectrum Disorder Pathology
Advances in Basic and Translational Science Provide a Path to Elucidate the Pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

63 Genetic Mechanisms in Neurodegenerative Diseases of the Nervous System

Huntington Disease Involves Degeneration of the Striatum
Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy Is Caused by Androgen Receptor Dysfunction
Hereditary Spinocerebellar Ataxias Share Similar Symptoms but Have Distinct Etiologies
Parkinson Disease Is a Common Degenerative Disorder of the Elderly
Selective Neuronal Loss Occurs After Damage to Ubiquitously Expressed Genes
Animal Models Are Productive Tools for Studying Neurodegenerative Diseases
Mouse Models Reproduce Many Features of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Invertebrate Models Manifest Progressive Neurodegeneration
The Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases Follows Several Pathways
Protein Misfolding and Degradation Contribute to Parkinson Disease
Protein Misfolding Triggers Pathological Alterations in Gene Expression
Mitochondrial Dysfunction Exacerbates Neurodegenerative Disease
Apoptosis and Caspases Modify the Severity of Neurodegeneration
Understanding the Molecular Dynamics of Neurodegenerative Diseases Suggests Approaches to Therapeutic Intervention
Highlights
Selected Reading
References

64 The Aging Brain

The Structure and Function of the Brain Change With Age
Cognitive Decline Is Significant and Debilitating in a Substantial Fraction of the Elderly
Alzheimer Disease Is the Most Common Cause of Dementia
The Brain in Alzheimer Disease Is Altered by Atrophy, Amyloid Plaques, and Neurofibrillary Tangles
Amyloid Plaques Contain Toxic Peptides That Contribute to Alzheimer Pathology
Neurofibrillary Tangles Contain Microtubule-Associated Proteins
Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease Have Been Identified
Alzheimer Disease Can Now Be Diagnosed Well but Available Treatments Are Unsatisfactory
Highlights
Selected Reading
References
Index
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